intellectuals, writers, philosophers and thinkers have characterised the history of the city, they have spoken and written of it, they have developed their works and thoughts here. It is not unusual to find buildings, cafés, streets and monuments dedicated to them. Just as many books recall the city or are set in it. The squares and porticoes of Turin have fascinated Honoré de Balzac, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Luigi Pirandello. Vittorio Alfieri described piazza San Carlo as "one of the most beautiful and harmonious squares in Italy" and Nietzsche, before he plunged into madness, called it "a city that speaks to the heart", but also "beautiful in the grey days". Turin is the city of the great classic writers like Emilio Salgari, who lived and wrote many of his adventures here, Edmondo De Amicis, Cesare Pavese, and Carlo Levi. Amongst the contemporary writers Mario Soldati, Giovanni Arpino, Carlo Fruttero and Franco Lucentini, Italo Calvino, Norberto Bobbio, Primo Levi… In Turin publishers such as Utet, Einaudi and Bollati Boringhieri have written the history of Italian and European culture. Literary Turin is also evident in the many bookshops, the historical and those specialised in classical music, esotericism, photography – the bookshops with coffee shop, the bookshops with art galleries, the antique bookshops. Turin is a cultured city and has always shown it: every year it celebrates books with the Salone Internazionale del Libro.
, 10100 Torino (TO)