The town of Caluso is very old, standing on a pre-Roman settlement and lying on the slopes of a system of hills that shelter it from the winds.
The most important characteristic of Caluso, however, is the unique composition of the soil, of morainic origin, which, combined with the favourable geographical position and climate, allows the cultivation of the vine, in particular of the Erbaluce vine, from which the precious D.O.C. wines, well known not only on the Italian wine market, are obtained. Vine cultivation has been practised in Caluso since ancient times and has always been the most important and prestigious resource of the local agricultural economy. Caluso is home to the Regional Wine Cellar of the wines of the province of Torino.
Due to its strategic position for controlling the territory, the village was much disputed, especially between the Monferrato and Savoy families, and its history is rich and eventful, as evidenced by buildings that have survived the complex historical events, such as the Rocca or Castellazzo, built in the 12th century and reduced to ruins by the Spanish in the mid-16th century, the remains of the Church of San Calocero, which was built at the same time as the Rocca, the Porta Crealis, one of the four surviving gates to the medieval town, which also dates back to the 12th century (although it was renovated in the 16th century). It also dates back to the 12th century (although it was restored in the 13th and 14th centuries), as well as the mighty walls. Other important buildings are the Parish Church, begun in April 1522, with a grandiose bell tower (18th century) and a splendid cloister. The churches of the Misericordia (or San Giovanni Decollato) and Santa Marta, both built at the beginning of the 18th century, the grandiose Palazzo Valperga di Masino (or Spurgazzi), attributed to the architect Filippo Castelli, and the adjoining wall. Filippo Castelli, and the adjoining park.